Pancreatic β-cell Glucose Toxicity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Hideaki Kaneto.

Journal Name: Current Diabetes Reviews

Volume 11 , Issue 1 , 2015

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Abstract:

Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin when blood glucose levels become high. However, when β-cells are chronically exposed to hyperglycemia, their function gradually deteriorates. Although such phenomena are called as β-cell glucose toxicity, its molecular mechanism remained unclear. This manuscript describes the possible mechanism for such β-cell dysfunction. In the diabetic state, nuclear expression levels of pancreatic transcription factors PDX-1 and MafA are decreased. In addition, incretin receptor expression in β- cells is decreased, which is likely involved in the impairment of incretin effects in diabetes. Taken together, it is likely that down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors and/or incretin receptors are involved in β-cell dysfunction observed in type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Pancreatic β-cells, reactive oxygen species, PDX-1, MafA, GLP-1 receptor.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 11
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2015
Page: [2 - 6]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1573399811666141216160217
Price: $58

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PDF: 49