Occurrence, Diagenesis and Crystal Structure of Zeolites
Pp. 15-45 (31)
From about 80 known types of natural zeolites, at least 20 have been reported
from repositories in zeolitically altered rocks. However, only the following nine
(analcim, chabazite, clinoptilolite, erionite, ferrierite, heulandite, laumontite, mordenite
and phillipsite) are known to occur in repositories large enough to mine. These zeolites,
which were formed by the natural alteration of volcanic aluminosilicate ash, occur in
either closed system or open system deposits. Clinoptilolite is by far the most common
zeolite. These minerals occur in rocks and sediments, seemingly formed in widely
disparate environments, which include deep sea sediments, continental accumulations in
thick basin fills or in shallow lakes, and also in some lava flow sections. Currently, over
thousand occurrences of zeolite minerals have been reported, predominantly from
sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin in more than 50 countries of the world. The ready
availability of zeolite-rich rocks at low cost and the shortage of competing minerals are
probably the most important factors for its large-scale use. In this chapter crystal
structure of sodalite, LTA, faujasite, erionite and clinoptilolite is described, in
conclusion focussing on the Slovakian clinoptilolite-rich tuff, respectively.
Clinoptilolite, crystal structure of zeolites, deep marine sediment,
diagenesis, erionite, faujasite, geothermal system, hydrologically closed and open
systems, LTA, occurrence, Slovakian clinoptilolite-rich tuff, sodalite.
Faculty of Natural Sciences Comenius University Mlynská dolina 842 15 Bratislava Slovak Republic.