Empowerment interventions for chronic diseases are an evolving process. No agreement exists regarding the
necessary components and methodologies to be applied. Systematic reviews have assessed the effect of self-management
interventions. Improvements in illness beliefs, adherence to drug therapy and glucose monitoring have been reported. In
the long term, no major changes have been achieved in weight, physical activity, smoking status, and depression scores.
There is a need for additional studies. The CAIPaDi (Centro de Atención Integral del Paciente con Diabetes) program is
an intervention designed to provide education and empowerment techniques (using simple low-cost interactive tools) over
a short period of time followed by at-distance support using internet or cell phone technology. The target population consists
of patients with type 2 diabetes, free of chronic complications who are non-smokers. The intervention is composed of
four monthly visits followed by a continuous at-distance support system. At each visit, patients stay for six hours in the
center. Information is presented in group sessions. Empowerment techniques are applied during individual exchanges with
the team or during facilitated group sessions. In summary, empowerment programs are an unmet need in many healthcare
services. This review also discusses relevant studies and patents in the management of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Chronic care model, empowerment, Mexico, prevention, self-management, type 2 diabetes.
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