Anisakis Simplex Infestation and Immune-Mediated Responses
Pp. 163-173 (11)
Ventura M. Teresa, Buquicchio Rosalba, F. Gatti, F.L. Traetta and G. Iadarola
Nowadays Anisakis simplex (A.s.) infestation is underestimated and underdiagnosis,
as the correlated clinical pictures suggest differential diagnosis of the
majority of gastrointestinal internal pathologies and of various symptoms of allergic
diseases, including the most severe and potentially fatal form represented by the
anaphylactic shock. However we must cope with a pervasive and emerging disease
which causes public serious health problems.
A. is a zoonotic disease caused by parasitic nematodes of the marine Anisakidae family; the
infection is caused by consuming raw parasitized fish. The experimental data in our
possession suggest that A. can determine different kinds of immunopathogenesis, in
particular the I, III and IV type. From the immunophlogistic point of view a conspicuous
eosinophilic infiltration is realized around the implant site tissue of the A. larva, as a result
of the action of chemotactic factors released by T lymphocytes, mast cells, basophils, and
also by the same A. It usually does not result into a blood eosinophilia.
Allergens, allergic diseases, anaphylactic shock, acute gastric
anisakiasis, acute intestinal anisakiasis, Anisakis simplex, basophil activation test,
chronic intestinal anisakiasis, eosinophils, eosinophilic granuloma,
immunopathogenesis, infestation, larvae, mast cells, nematodes, proteolytic
enzymes, T lymphocytes, tropomyosin, urticaria, zoonotic diseases.
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari Medical School, Polyclinic, Bari, Italy, Piazza G. Cesare, 70124 Bari, Italy.