Garlic is widely consumed as both a food additive and medicine around the globe and has been for over 5,000
years. Immunomodulatory substances in garlic abound and include alicin, aliin, ajoene and organosulfides, many of which
increase in potency as the cloves are aged. Garlic can be used in many forms, each of which takes on different properties
depending on the relative phytochemicals within it. The purpose of this mini-review is therefore to first explore the uses
of garlic itself, explaining the biochemistry of its individual constituents and then go on to evaluate the literature for
appropriate pre-clinical animal and cellular models of efficacy as well as available human clinical trials. Finally, the
review will explore possible solutions to standardization of the use of garlic as medicine as well as possible directions in
which such research might be developed.
Keywords: Alicin, antimicrobial, cancer treatment, immunomodulatory, organosulfides.
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