Ischemic stroke is caused when blood flow to the brain is hampered, leading to instant deficiency of nutrients
and oxygen required for normal brain functioning. Reperfusion can alleviate damage from stroke if performed
immediately after the onset of ischemia however the efficacy of reperfusion is tempered by secondary injury mechanisms.
This multifarious sequence of events leads to the commencement of deleterious cycles of inflammation, oxidant stress and
apoptosis that finally culminate in delayed death of neuronal cells even when the brain is effectively reperfused. Wealth of
data from clinical as well as experimental studies points to a prominent role of inflammation in secondary injury. In this
review we will discuss, in detail, the cellular and molecular mediators of inflammation and their possible therapeutic
targets in both experimental and clinical forms of stroke.
Keywords: Cerebral ischemia, cyclooxygenase-2, cytokines and chemokines, inflammation, microglia, middle cerebral artery
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