Influenza is an acute respiratory illness that remains an important cause of excessive morbidity and mortality
with substantial economic cost to the population. Influenza, being a virus that frequently mutates, is not amenable to
elimination. Vaccination remains the most effective preventive measure. This review summarises the latest developments
in the fields of biology and epidemiology relating to clinical and economic impacts of influenza disease, and vaccination.
We suggest that future efforts should focus on developing safer, more effective, and cost-effective prophylactic vaccines
Keywords: Epidemiology, health economics, immunisation policy, influenza vaccine, influenza.
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