Intra-coding is the application of spatial prediction coding to video data either on a whole frame basis or on
individual macroblocks. This paper outlines the growing sophistication in intra-coding within recent standard codecs, the
topic which is primarily relevant to compression for data storage. It then specializes to intra-coding for error resilience and
intra-refresh, the topic which is relevant to video streaming applications. Efficient intra coding is becoming important for
real-time high-resolution video, due to the computational cost of inter-coding, as the paper will consider for recent codecs.
The paper will compare error-resilience performance across a variety of schemes. There are choices, which the paper
analyses, as to whether to protect: on a whole frame basis; by intra-coding selected macro-blocks; and whether to use an
isolated region; a cyclic intra-refresh line; or randomized insertion of macroblocks. The paper contains over 100
references, including recent patents in this field.
Keywords: Error resilience, intra coding, video codec, video compression.
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