Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis is a systemic
small-vessel vasculitis, including 3 clinical syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis,
known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and the
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). ANCA-related vasculitis usually presents with severe
kidney or pulmonary disease, has a mortality of 28% at 5 years, and also contributes to
increased morbidity in vasculitis patients.
Cardiac involvement in this entity may have different forms, including coronary vessels,
pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditis, myocardial infarction and subendocardial vasculitis
that can contribute to reduced life expectancy.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance using oedema and fibrosis imaging can early reveal,
noninvasively and without radiation, heart involvement during vasculitis, undetected by other imaging techniques and
guide further risk stratification and treatment of these patients.