Tuberculosis (TB), a dreadful disease is one of the most important health problems worldwide, and is responsible
for approximately 1.3 million death tolls in 2012. DOTS is the currently used drug therapy in TB and the long term
drug regimens and patients’ poor compliance lead to emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant
(XDR) TB, which invigorates the research efforts to address the urgent need for the quick diagnosis and for newer antitubercular
agents and vaccines to completely eradicate TB. Today we have at least 20 new diagnostic test platforms, 14
TB vaccine candidates in clinical trials and over 35 candidates in preclinical development, and among the antitubercular
agents under clinical investigation, 4 anti-TB agents are in Phase III (efficacy) trials and 7 anti-TB agents are in Phase II,
early bactericidal activity and sputum culture conversion trials (rifapentine is in a Phase II and a Phase III trial), 5 anti-TB
agents in preclinical development and 3 anti-TB agents in Good Laboratory Practice toxicity evaluation. Recently US
FDA has approved TMC207 as a part of combination therapy to treat adults with MDR pulmonary TB in the absence of
other alternatives. We provide here the concise review on the chemical entities currently in the clinical trials, the new vaccines
in the developmental pipeline, and the new diagnostic test.
Keywords: Antitubercular agents, review, tuberculosis, tubercular vaccines, tuberculosis diagnosis.
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