Biotransformation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds by Selected Phase I and Phase II Enzymes – Formation of Estrogenic and Chemically Reactive Metabolites by Cytochromes P450 and Sulfotransferases

Author(s): J. Reinen, N.P.E. Vermeulen.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 22 , Issue 4 , 2015

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Abstract:

The endocrine system is a major communication system in the body and is involved in maintenance of the reproductive system, fetal development, growth, maturation, energy production, and metabolism,. The endocrine system responds to the needs of an organism by secreting a wide variety of hormones that enable the body to maintain homeostasis, to respond to external stimuli, and to follow various developmental programs. This occurs through complex signalling cascades,with multiple sites at which the signals can be regulated. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) affect the endocrine system by simulating the action of the naturally produced hormones, by inhibiting the action of natural hormones, by changing the function and synthesis of hormone receptors, or by altering the synthesis, transport, metabolism, and elimination of hormones. It has been established that exposure to environmental EDCs is a risk factor for disruption of reproductive development and oncogenesis in both humans and wildlife. For accurate risk assessment of EDCs, the possibility of bioactivation through biotransformation processes needs to be included since neglecting these mechanisms may lead to undervaluation of adverse effects on human health caused by EDCs and/or their metabolites. This accurate risk assessment should include: (1) possibility of EDCs to be bioactivated into metabolites with enhanced endocrine disruption (ED) effects, and (2) possibility of EDCs to be biotransformed into reactive metabolites that may cause DNA damage. Here, we present an overview of different metabolic enzymes that are involved in the biotransformation of EDCs. In addition, we describe how biotransformation by Cytochromes P450 (CYPs), human estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1) and selected other phase II enzymes, can lead to the formation of bioactive metabolites. This review mainly focuses on CYP- and SULT-mediated bioactivation of estrogenic EDCs and summarizes our views on this topic while also showing the importance of including bioactivation and biotransformation processes for improved risk assessment strategies.

Keywords: Bioactivation, biotransformation, Cytochromes P450 (CYPs), endocrine disruption (ED), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), estrogen receptor α(ERα), reactive intermediates, sulfotransferases (SULTs).

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2015
Page: [500 - 527]
Pages: 28
DOI: 10.2174/0929867321666140916123022
Price: $58

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