The oral route is the most suitable and physiological delivery route. Oral insulin delivery would minimize the
health hazard implied in repeated injection, surpass complications arising from the need for sterile techniques associated
with parenteral formulations and provide better glucose homeostasis. However, it is limited by various physiological barriers
and still remains a scientific challenge. The desire to deliver insulin by the oral route in a conveniently and effectively
way has led to the intense investigation of new delivery systems. Nanodelivery systems have been proposed to enhance
the bioavailability of insulin after oral administration. This review article describes the gastrointestinal barriers to
oral insulin delivery, including chemical, enzymatic and absorption barriers. The potential transport mechanisms of insulin
delivered by nanoparticles across the intestinal epithelium are also addressed. Finally, how nanoparticles characteristics
affect insulin pharmacological activity and bioavailability is discussed.
Keywords: Absorption mechanisms, bioavailability, insulin, nanoparticle, oral administration.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport