Warfarin pharmacogenomic testing has become a prime example of the utility of personalized molecular testing
in the modern clinical laboratory. Warfarin is a commonly used drug for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic
complications in a variety of clinical situations. However, a number of factors lead to a high interindividual variability in
dose requirements. Among the primary factors in this variability are genetic polymorphisms in general patient populations,
which can account for 35-50% of varying dose requirements among patients. In this review, we discuss the implications
of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P-450 enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) and Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Enzyme
Complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) as they relate to therapeutic warfarin dosing. We discuss the clinical utility of pharmacogenomics
testing as related to warfarin dosing, and propose a clinical model for the implementation of the pharmacogenomic
test results. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the currently available commercial testing platforms with discussion
of the complexities of utilizing patented methodologies in bringing genetic testing such as this to the clinical laboratory.
Keywords: Biotechnology, patents, pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, warfarin.
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