Current Cancer Drug Targets

Ruiwen Zhang 
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
1300 Coulter Drive
Amarillo, TX 79106
USA

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The Role of CD40 Expression in Dendritic Cells in Cancer Biology; A Systematic Review

Author(s): Gui Han Lee, Alan Askari, George Malietzis, David Bernardo, Susan K. Clark, Stella C. Knight, Hafid Omar Al-Hassi.

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Abstract:

CD40 is a co-stimulatory molecule belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and is essential in activation of dendritic cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells capable of initiating cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against cancer cells. However, there are few studies on the characterization of DCs in cancer, specifically their expression of CD40, despite its implication in cancer immunotherapy. We reviewed available data on the expression of CD40 on DCs in various cancers, and its implications for cancer immunotherapy.

A systematic review on CD40 expression on DCs in cancer was performed with reference to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Studies that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria were 21 out of 927.

Variations in type and status of the cancers, source of DCs and methodology for detecting CD40 expression amongst the studies resulted in contrasting results. DCs generally expressed low CD40 in tumor infiltrating DCs (tiDCs), in DCs derived by in vitro culture from blood monocytes using cytokine stimulation (MoDCs) and in DCs exposed in vitro to tumor cells lines; the studies suggested that CD40 expression in DCs is impaired in cancer particularly in metastatic disease. However, DCs identified in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) expressed higher numbers of CD40 positive cells in some cancer patients, which could be due to tumor-derived factors leading to partially-stimulated DCs. The results provide evidence that some cancer patients may show partial systemic DC activation and expression of increased CD40 in response to the presence of tumor but that such activity may become abortive in the presence of factors produced by the tumor.

This review has thus identified key papers on CD40 expression on DCs in various cancers and discusses the limitations and contrasting results of these studies in relation to variations in methodology. The results highlight the need for further studies on the role of CD40-CD40 ligand pathway to inform cancer treatment.

Keywords: Antigen presenting cells, cancer, CD40, CD40 ligand, dendritic cells, immunotherapy.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2014
Page: [610 - 620]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1568009614666140828103253
Price: $58