Proteins and peptides are widely indicated in many diseased states. Parenteral route is the most commonly em-
ployed method of administration for therapeutic proteins and peptides. However, requirement of frequent injections due to
short in vivo half-life results in poor patient compliance. Non-invasive drug delivery routes such as nasal, transdermal,
pulmonary, and oral offer several advantages over parenteral administration. Intrinsic physicochemical properties and low
permeability across biological membrane limit protein delivery via non-invasive routes. One of the strategies to improve
protein and peptide absorption is by delivering through nanostructured delivery carriers. Among nanocarriers, polymeric
nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated significant advantages over other delivery systems. This article summarizes the
application of polymeric NPs for protein and peptide drug delivery following oral, nasal, pulmonary, parenteral, transder-
mal, and ocular administrations.
Keywords: Brain, hydrophobic ion-pairing (HIP) complex, nasal, ocular, parenteral, polymeric nanoparticles, protein and pep-
tide drug delivery, pulmonary, transdermal.
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