Mucosal Delivery of Vaccine by M Cell Targeting Strategies
Mucosal vaccination is one of the most effective methods to prevent infectious diseases because most
pathogens enter the body at mucosal surfaces. Mucosal vaccination induces not only systemic immune responses but also
mucosal responses compared to parenteral vaccination that induces poor mucosal immunity. Another advantages of using
mucosal vaccines are high patient compliance, low cost and easy other administration. Despite these advantages, very few
mucosal vaccines are commercially available today. This is because mucosal vaccines are prone to degradation in the
harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lowering the bioavailability of antigens to induce immune responses.
Therefore, protective and effective formulations are required for successful mucosal vaccination. Accordingly, the use of
nano- and micro-polymeric particles has received much attention as delivery vehicles of antigens because they can protect
the antigens from degradation in the GI tract and they also enhance the antigen uptake in mucosal-associated lymphoid
tissue. Particularly, mucoadhesive polymeric carriers are the most promising vehicles for mucosal vaccine delivery
because these carriers retain the vaccines on the mucosal tissues for longer period thus improving the bioavailability of the
antigens. Most importantly, M cells on the follicle-associated epithelium of the Peyer’s patch play a key role in mucosal
infection and immunity because they uptake and deliver antigens across mucosal epithelia to the lymphoid tissues via
transcytosis. In this review, we dig the role and characteristics of M cells on mucosal immunization and explore the
molecules of M cells for targeted delivery of antigens by polymeric particle system.
Keywords: M cell targeting, mucoadhesive polymeric carriers, mucosal immune system, polymeric particle system, vaccine.
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