In response to infection and trauma, exquisite control of the innate inflammatory response is necessary to
promote an anti-microbial response and minimize tissue injury. Over the course of the host response, activated leukocytes are
essential for the initial response and can later become unresponsive or undergo apoptosis. Leukocytes, along the continuum of
activation to apoptosis, have been shown to generate microvesicles. These vesicles can range in size from 0.1 to 1.0 μm
and can retain proteins, RNA and DNA of their parent cells. Importantly, neutrophil-derived microvesicles (NDMV) are
robustly increased under inflammatory conditions. The aim of this review is to summarize the research to date upon
NDMVs. This will include describing under which disease states NDMVs are increased, mechanisms underlying
formation, and the impact of these vesicles upon cellular targets. Altogether, increased awareness of NDMVs during the
host innate response may allow for diagnostic tools as well as potential novel therapies during infection and trauma.
Keywords: Apoptosis, inflammatory, immune response, microvesicles, neutrophil derived microvesicles, sepsis.
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