However, recently, this view is changing thanks to new studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanism(s) activated by components of this diet. In particular, a new class of proteins called sirtuins have gained the attention of the scientific community because of their antiageing effects, their ability to protect from cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and to extend lifespan in lower organisms as well as in mammals. Interestingly, resveratrol a polyphenol present in grapes, nuts and berries has been shown to activate sirtuins and such activation is able to explain most of the beneficial effects of the MD.
In this review, we will highlight the importance of MD with particular attention to the possible molecular pathways that have been shown to be influenced by it. We will describe the state of the art leading to demonstrate the important role of sirtuins as principal intracellular mediators of the beneficial effects of the MD. Finally, we will also introduce how Mediterranean diet may influence microbioma composition and stem cells function.