Methods: The inhibition activity of acetylshikonin against bacteria was identified by microbial sensitivity tests of broth dilution method on 96-microwell plate. Trypsin-like protease and glycosidic enzyme activities were measured by a fluorescence spectrophotometer.
Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration of acetylshikonin on gram-negative were found to be 0.0625mg/ml, 0.125mg/ml, 0.125mg/ml, 0.25mg/ml, 0.25mg/ml and 0.5mg/ml, for S. intermedius, P. micros, P. acnes, L. acidophilus, A. viscosus and E. lentum respectively. Acetylshikonin showed extensive antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria, and it was more active against gram-positive bacteria. The acetylshikonin inhibited the activities of both trypsin-like protease and glycosidic enzyme by 45% and 95% with the final concentration of acetylshikonin from 0.0195 to 2.5 mg/ml.
Conclusion: The inhibition activity of acetylshikonin on bacteria and its enzyme of trypsin-like protease and glycosidic may be essential to conquer periodontal ecological niche for treating periodontal disease.