Under normal conditions, most of the central nervous system (CNS) is protected by the blood brain barrier
(BBB) from systemic inflammation progression and from the infiltration of immune cells. As a consequence, the CNS developed
an original way to provide surveillance, defense and repair, which relies on the complex process of neuroinflammation.
Despite tight regulation, neuroinflammation is frequently the cause of irreversible nerve cell loss but it is also
where the solution lies. Specific immune crosstalk taking place in the CNS needs to be decoded in order to identify the
best therapeutic strategies aimed at helping the CNS restore homeostasis in difficult conditions such as in neurodegenerative
disorders. This review deals with the double-edged sword nature of neuroinflammation and the use of resveratrol in
various models as one of the most promising therapeutic molecules for preventing the consequences of nerve cell autodestruction.
Keywords: Microglia, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, polyphenols, resveratrol.
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