Diabetes Mellitus Induced Impairment of Male Reproductive Functions: A Review
Ram Niwas Jangir and Gyan Chand Jain
Affiliation: Center for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India.
Keywords: Diabetes, fertility, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, sperm quality, testosterone.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest threats to human health all over the world. The incidence
of DM is rising rapidly also including children and young persons of reproductive age. Diabetes has been associated with
reproductive impairment in both men and women. Diabetes may affect male reproductive functions at multiple levels as a
result of its effects on the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, sperm maturation, impairment of penile
erection and ejaculation. A large number of studies both on diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals have been
published on the impact of DM on male reproductive functions during the past few years but many of them have conflicting
results. The present review summarizes the research finding of a large number of research papers on the reproductive
functions especially on hypothalmo-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, histopathology of testis, synthesis and
secretion of testosterone, sperm quality, ejaculatory function and fertility both in diabetic men and experimental diabetic
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