Introduction: Over-consumption of antibiotics has led to increased bacterial resistance and higher prevalence of
hospital -acquired infections, resulting in rising treatment costs and prolonged length of hospital stay. The purpose of the
study was to correlate the use of restricted antibiotics with recommended diagnosis and cost.
Materials and Methods: All restricted antibiotics that were administered in a 240-bed general hospital in a semi-urban
area within a year were recorded. The reason for administering each such antibiotic during the first three months of the
study was also recorded. PASW 18 (SPSS Inc.) was used for the statistical analysis; a variable was considered statistically
significant when statistical significance was p= 0.05.
Results: 1118 patients were registered, of which 35,05% were employees, insured with IKA, 33,05% were farmers and
covered by OGA and 31,9% were insured in other Social Insurance Funds or uninsured. The most commonly
administered antibiotic combination was that of piperacillin/tazobactam, which was mainly used in the Internal Medicine
Dept. of the Hospital. The most commonly used restricted antibiotic, administered after an antibiogram, was the
combination of piperacillin/tazobactam (n= 13), mainly prescribed for respiratory infection. One third of the recorded
restricted antibiotics were administered before an antibiogram had been taken for fever of unknown origin (n= 128).
Conclusion: Rational use of restricted antibiotics is an important component of public health policies aiming at reducing
hospital-acquired infections. Hospitalization costs rise when restricted antibiotics are used, and the possibility for the
development of resistant bacteria increases.