Anthrax: History, Biology, Global Distribution, Clinical Aspects, Immunology, and Molecular Biology

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Following the post 9/11 distribution of anthrax spores through the U.S. mail, and the resulting deaths of five individuals - primarily due to initial misdiagnosis - there has been a renewed interest ...
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Clinical Aspects and The Infectious Process of Anthrax

Pp. 47-68 (22)

Robert E. Levin

Abstract

Systemic infections usually result in the patient reaching “the point of no return”. Among the three forms of anthrax: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation, the cutaneous form constitutes 95% of all reported human cases. The clinical aspects of all three forms are presented in notable detail with illustrations. Meningeal anthrax infections resulting in the “red Cardinal's cap” are nearly always fatal. The major known virulence factors in anthrax include the cell-surface-associated antiphagocytic poly-Dglutamic acid capsule, the protective antigen (PA), and the edema (ET) and lethal (LT) toxins. Penicillin G, doxycycline, and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin are considered the drugs of choice for the treatment of anthrax.

Affiliation:

University of Massachusetts Amherst USA