Neuroinflammation is presented in the acute phase brain damage as well as chronic diseases. Cells that are
directly or indirectly involved in immune responses compose the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are resident
cells of the CNS and, as peripheral macrophages, are activated in presence of some cellular insult, producing a large
number of cytokines and chemokines in order to remove toxins from the extracellular space. This activation can lead to a
breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, production of reactive oxygen species that is involved in the progression of CNS
damage as occurs in septic encephalopathy. Given the growing relevance of microglia in the area of neurotoxicology, we
describe the role of microglia and the cellular mechanisms that activate these cells during sepsis. Thus, in this review we
focused on the relationship between microglia and neuroinflammation associated with sepsis.
Keywords: Blood-brain barrier, CNS, encephalopathy, microglia, neuroinflammation, sepsis.
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