Survival of critically ill neonates in the intensive care unit has improved over the past decades reflecting improvements
in obstetric, delivery room and neonatal intensive care, however, morbidity remains significant. Acute kidney
injury is a common occurrence in these neonates and despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology and management
of acute kidney injury in full term and preterm infants, the mortality remains as high as 61%. Furthermore, there
is growing evidence that despite recovery from the acute injury, these infants are at risk for developing hypertension and
chronic kidney disease later in life. Emphasis on improving our capability to detect renal insult and injury early, before
renal failure occurs, and identification of novel therapeutic agents to prevent and treat acute kidney injury may impact
mortality and morbidity. This review focuses on our current knowledge of acute kidney injury in the newborn, approaches
to investigating and managing this complication and what future trends in this field may bring.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury, acute renal failure, AKI, newborn, neonate, preterm.
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