The most robust and frequently reported cognitive deficits in type 2 diabetes (DM2) are those that relate to
memory. Behavioural research has identified a number of potential contributory physiological factors, including abnormalities
in glucose metabolism, such as hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia. The impact of these mechanisms on memory
has been further investigated through the use of both structural and functional neuroimaging. Structural brain imaging has
indicated that memory impairments in DM2 are associated with global atrophy of the brain. Further data suggest that localised
atrophy in the hippocampal area, a brain region critical to memory formation and consolidation, may be primarily
responsible for the memory deficits seen in this population. Functional imaging data has corroborates these findings, with
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggesting reduced connectivity between the hippocampus and surrounding
brain regions, particularly the frontal and temporal gyri. Despite this, little functional neuroimaging research has directly
investigated differences in regional brain activity between healthy and DM2 participants whilst memory tasks are
being performed. By using neuroimaging techniques to their full potential, we can acquire a fuller, more comprehensive
picture of the impact that DM2 has on memory.
Keywords: Brain, cognition, EEG, memory, MRI, neuroimaging, type 2 diabetes.
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