Influence of Antiretroviral Therapy and Periodontal Disease on Human Salivary Beta-Defensin 2 in Patients Infected with HIV
Alan Grupioni Lourenco, Ana Elisa Rodrigues Alves Ribeiro, Cristiano Nakao, Ana Carolina Fragoso Motta, Alcyone Artioli Machado and Marilena Chinali Komesu
Affiliation: Department of Morphology, Stomatology and Physiology, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Via do Cafe s/n, 14040-904 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.
Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection, human β-defesin 2, periodontal disease, saliva.
Studies have addressed periodontal disease biomarkers in salivary proteins associated with innate immunity,
mostly due to the alteration in the concentration of many of these proteins in the presence of inflammation. On the other
hand, some systemic diseases can modify salivary protein concentrations, which may change their importance or role as
To study the relationship between periodontal disease and concentrations of human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in the saliva
of patients infected and not infected with HIV. To evaluate the association between HBD-2 salivary concentration and
viral load, the TCD4+ lymphocyte count (LTCD-4+) and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was assessed in HIVinfected
Concentrations of HBD-2 were measured in 48 patients not infected with HIV and 53 HIV-infected patients by ELISA,
and these data were compared according to periodontal status. Within the group of HIV-infected patients, measures of
HBD-2 were assessed according to viral load, LTCD-4+ count and the use of ART.
Concentrations of salivary HBD-2 were associated with periodontal disease in non-HIV-infected patients. In HIV-infected
patients, salivary HBD-2 was associated with serum status and the use of ART, but it was not related to the periodontal
condition. The presence of HBD-2 in the saliva of HIV-infected patients showed no correlations with LTCD-4+ count or
HBD-2 could be a periodontal biomarker in non-HIV-infected patients, but in HIV-infected patients, while salivary HBD-
2 was influenced by the serum status and ART use, it was not correlated with the periodontal condition.
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