The innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been grouped into three main categories: ILC1s [T helper (h)1-like
cells], ILC2s (Th2-like cells) and ILC3s (Th17-like cells), respectively. In particular, ILC3s are responsible for the
secretion of both interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22, which play either protective (antimicrobial and repairing activities) or
harmful (inflammation and tumor growth) roles into the host. Here, some putative interventional studies will be
hypothesized, taking into account that activation of innate cell receptors, arylhydrocarbon receptor and gut microbiota,
respectively, contribute to both differentiation and function of ILC3s. A series of biological and natural compounds may
represent putative regulators of these cells in the gut. In this respect, the modulating effects of agonist and antagonists of
Toll-like receptors and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, polyphenols and probiotics will be
described in detail.
Keywords: Innate lymphoid cells, innate immune receptors, interleukin, microbiota, nucleotide binding oligomerization
domain-like receptors, polyphenols, Toll-like receptors.
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