Cardioprotective Effects of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) and its Phytochemicals: A Review
Jason J. D'souza,
Prema P. D'souza,
Arnadi R. Shivashankara,
Rashmi Theresa Mathai,
Princy L. Palatty,
Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, colloquially known as the Indian gooseberry or amla,
is an important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda and is classified as a Hrudya
which when translated means cardiotonic drug. Numerous preclinical studies with laboratory animals have shown that
amla does possess cardioprotective and anticoagulant effects and is useful in delaying/preventing/ reducing experimentally
induced cardiotoxicity, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hypertension and reducing ischemic-reperfusion injury.
The pleiotropic effect of amla is believed to be due to the presence of various phytochemicals and studies have
shown that the tannoids (emblicanin-A and –B), gallic acid, ellagic acid and corilagin also possess cardioprotective properties.
Additionally, clinical studies have also shown that the regular intake of amla was effective in reducing the cholesterol
levels and the effect to be similar to that of the conventionally used HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, simvastatin. Recent
studies have also shown that amla improves endothelial function and reduced biomarkers of oxidative stress and systemic
inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review for the first time summarizes the results related
to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cardioprotective/
cardiotonic therapeutic drug in humans.
Keywords: Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus emblica, Indian gooseberry, amla, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, cardiotoxicity,
atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hypertension, ischemic-reperfusion injury.
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