Pleiotropic Beneficial Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate, Quercetin and Delphinidin on Cardiovascular Diseases Associated with Endothelial Dysfunction
Cardiovascular diseases are an important public health problem because they represent a major cause of death
worldwide. The pathophysiology of these chronic diseases is defined, among others, by an excess of reactive oxygen
species production, a defect of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a high blood pressure or a modification of platelet
function. Epidemiological studies suggest that the beneficial cardiovascular health effects of diets rich in fruits and
vegetables are, in part, mediated by their flavonoid content, with particular benefits provided by members of this family
such as epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin or delphinidin. Many studies show that these phytochemicals are promising
natural compounds to prevent cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Mechanistically, shortterm
effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation following the consumption of these flavonoids have been linked to an
increased nitric oxide bioactivity. Moreover, besides their well-described antioxidant properties, these flavonoids are able
to prevent endothelial cell apoptosis and to modulate various signaling pathways leading to inflammation. Therefore, this
review attempts to outline our understanding about the pleiotropic beneficial effects of epigallocathecin gallate, quercetin
or delphinidin on cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, this review aims to
identify the potential protective vascular effects of these flavonoids and their therapeutic value in cardiovascular medicine.
Keywords: Apoptosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction, flavonoids, inflammation, thrombosis.
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