MicroRNA Pathways: An Emerging Role in Identification of Therapeutic Strategies
Soundararajan Vijayarathna, Chern E. Oon, Subramanion L. Jothy, Yeng Chen, Jagat R. Kanwar and Sreenivasan Sasidharan
Affiliation: Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
For years researchers have exerted every effort to improve the influential roles of microRNA (miRNA) in regulating
genes that direct mammalian cell development and function. In spite of numerous advancements, many facets of
miRNA generation remain unresolved due to the perplexing regulatory networks. The biogenesis of miRNA, eminently
endures as a mystery as no universal pathway defines or explicates the variegation in the rise of miRNAs. Early evidence
in biogenesis ignited specific steps of being omitted or replaced that eventuate in the individual miRNAs of different
mechanisms. Understanding the basic foundation concerning how miRNAs are generated and function will help with diagnostic
tools and therapeutic strategies. This review encompasses the canonical and the non-canonical pathways involved
in miRNA biogenesis, while elucidating how miRNAs regulate genes at the nuclear level and also the mechanism that lies
behind circulating miRNAs.
Keywords: miRNA biogenesis, canonical pathways, non-canonical pathways, circulating miRNAs.
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