Disorders in articular cartilage affect many people, and are one of the leading causes of infirmity and decreased
quality of life in adults. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine related to cartilage include a broad range of settings
and approaches that seek to repair, augment, replace or regenerate cartilage tissue. Formation of new tissue by cartilageforming
cells (chondrogenic cells) is a central feature of each of these goals. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation
has been introduced to avoid some of the side-effects and complications of current techniques. Different mesenchymal stem
cell sources possess different abilitties to regenerate cartilage. However, the use of MSCs for cartilage repair is still at the
stage of preclinical and phase I studies, and no comparative clinical studies have been reported. Therefore, it is difficult to
make conclusions in human studies. The focus of this review is the role of MSCs, from different sources in which animal
models were involved, in tissue-engineering cartilage repair, and research findings aimed at exploring a more rational application
of animal models as the basis for future research, with clinical transformation providing a context.
Keywords: Animal model, articular cartilage, cartilage regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells, preclinical trials, tissue engineering.
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