Recent studies have brought endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) as a special perspective of epithelial-
mesenchymal transition (EMT) into eyes. Traditionally, EndMT is considered as a source for fibroblasts and myofibroblasts,
and it is extensively investigated in physiologic cardiac development as well as in pathologic tumor and fibrosis.
Recently, new studies have found that EndMT-transformed cells had ‘stemness’, which means they could differentiate
into chondroblasts, osteoblasts, and adipoblasts in differential culture, respectively. This gives EndMT a bright application
future in tissue engineering and regeneration, especially for the formation of cartilage and bone.
Keywords: Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), EndMTtransformed
cells, tissue regeneration, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).
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