Animal Models For Craniofacial Reconstruction by Stem/Stromal Cells
The craniofacial region contains a variety of specified tissues, including bones, muscles, cartilages, teeth, blood
vessels and nerves. Infections, traumas, genetic, anatomical, or congenital abnormalities could cause tissue defects in the
region. Craniofacial tissue engineering and regeneration remain challenging problems for oral and maxillofacial surgeons
and scientists. Stem cells isolated from the bone marrow, adipose tissue, dental pulp, the deciduous tooth, or the periodontium
were proven to play an important role in tissue regeneration including craniofacial bone defect regeneration, facial
nerve regeneration, TMJ (temporal-mandibular joint) condylar cartilage regeneration, TMJ disc regeneration and teeth regeneration
in massive studies. In the review, the animal models for craniofacial engineering and regeneration are discussed.
Specifically the modalities of establishing a defect model and treatment of the defect with various stem cells in
combination with different cytokines and biomaterials are included. The review could be used to choose an appropriate
experimental model for specific tissue defect, or to design innovative, reproducible, discriminative experimental models in
Keywords: Animal models, craniofacial, defect, regeneration, stem cells, tissue engineering.
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