Insight is provided herein into the novel mechanisms of cardiometabolic risk. Previous reports, including the epidemiological
work of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor study, indicated that proinflammatory state and oxidative stress are crucial for evaluating cardiometabolic
risk. Autoimmune pathways in the course of oxidative stress are major determinants of cardiorenal and metabolic risk. The
latter encompasses metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Along with platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, acylation-stimulating protein, asymmetric
dimethylarginine, and serum lipoprotein[Lp](a) are triggers of systemic low-grade inflammation and enhanced autoimmune reactions.
Related studies are analyzed in the current review.
Lp(a) plays a crucial role by taking part in the immune activation, thereby accelerating the course of diabetes, CKD, and other chronic
disorders. Populations prone to impaired glucose tolerance, and particularly peri- and postmenopausal women, are at high risk of developing
related vascular complications.