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Enhanced Proinflammatory State and Autoimmune Activation: a Breakthrough to Understanding Chronic Diseases

Author(s): Altan Onat, Gunay Can.

Abstract:

Insight is provided herein into the novel mechanisms of cardiometabolic risk. Previous reports, including the epidemiological work of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor study, indicated that proinflammatory state and oxidative stress are crucial for evaluating cardiometabolic risk. Autoimmune pathways in the course of oxidative stress are major determinants of cardiorenal and metabolic risk. The latter encompasses metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Along with platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, acylation-stimulating protein, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and serum lipoprotein[Lp](a) are triggers of systemic low-grade inflammation and enhanced autoimmune reactions. Related studies are analyzed in the current review.

Lp(a) plays a crucial role by taking part in the immune activation, thereby accelerating the course of diabetes, CKD, and other chronic disorders. Populations prone to impaired glucose tolerance, and particularly peri- and postmenopausal women, are at high risk of developing related vascular complications.

Keywords: Autoimmune activation, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lipoprotein(a), metabolic syndrome, proinflammatory state.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2014
Page: [575 - 584]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/138161282004140213145551
Price: $58