Pp. 122-149 (28)
Nasr H. Anaizi
This chapter deals with acid-base homeostasis with special emphasis on the role
of the respiratory system. After explaining why maintaining a relatively constant proton
activity is critical to optimal cellular function we define acid-base balance and describe the
basic mechanisms responsible for acid-base homeostasis. After describing the unique role of
the HCO3-/CO2 buffer pair in acid-base regulation the four primary acid-base disturbances are defined. Finally an extensive outline is presented of the various approaches for the
evaluation of acid-base disorders followed by examples and a few clinical cases.
Acid-Base Disorders, Acid-Base Homeostasis, Acidemia, Acidosis,
Alkalemia, Alkalosis, Anion Gap, Base Excess, Buffering Capacity, Davenport
Diagram, Henderson-Hasselbalch, Hydrogen Ions, Imidazole Group, Metabolic
Acidosis, Metabolic Alkalosis, pH, pKa, Respiratory Acidosis, Respiratory
Alkalosis, Standard Bicarbonate.
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry 601 Elmwood Ave. Rochester, NY 14642-8711 USA