Alternative Methodologies for Halogenation of Organic Compounds
Eskandar Kolvari, Nadiya Koukabi, Ahmad Khoramabadi-zad, Azam Shiri and Mohammad Ali Zolfigol
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Semnan University, P.O. Box 35195-363 Semnan, Iran and Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan P.O. Box 6517838683, Iran.
It is difficult to imagine organic chemistry without organo-halogen compounds and the molecular halogens needed for their
preparation. In fact, It is implied that halogenation of organic compounds is a key industrial process; for example, the halogenated products
are used in the synthesis of many pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Conventional halogenation methods typically use pollutant, toxic
and corrosive elemental halogens (X2), which also generate hydrohalic acid as byproduct and effectively reduce the atom efficiency.
Hence, to avoid their use, various modified reagents (N-halo reagents such as trichloisocyanuric acid, haloglycolurils, N-halosuccinimid
and …), methods such as oxidative halogenation in the presence of alkali halogen salts, biohalogenations, solid phase and ionic liquid
have been developed. In this review article, we will focus on strategies that are much greener and more sustainable than those using elemental
Keywords: Bromination, chlorination, iodination, oxidative, green methodologies, halogenation.
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