Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process
Kelly E. Caudle, Teri E. Klein, James M. Hoffman, Daniel J. Muller, Michelle Whirl-Carrillo, Li Gong, Ellen M. McDonagh, Katrin Sangkuhl, Caroline F. Thorn, Matthias Schwab, Jose A.G. Agundez, Robert R. Freimuth, Vojtech Huser, Ming Ta Michael Lee, Otito F. Iwuchukwu, Kristine R. Crews, Stuart A. Scott, Mia Wadelius, Jesse J. Swen, Rachel F. Tyndale, C. Michael Stein, Dan Roden, Mary V. Relling, Marc S. Williams and Samuel G. Johnson
Affiliation: 262 Danny Thomas Place MS: 313, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.
The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help
clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known
examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC
guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes
and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help
clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the
development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine’s Standards for Developing Trustworthy
Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Keywords: Clinical practice guideline, guideline, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics.
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