The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary
lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close
association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy
for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and
blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted
as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve
its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach.
In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated
condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in
the context of MetS risk.
Keywords: Diet, gene-diet interaction, nutrigenomics, metabolic syndrome, polymorphism, diabetes mellitus.
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