The intestines harbor over trillions of commensal bacteria, which co-evolve and form a mutualistic relationship
with the host, with microbial-host interaction shaping immune adaption and bacterial communities. The intestinal
microbiota not only benefits the host and contributes to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, but also causes chronic
intestinal inflammation under certain conditions. Thus, understanding the microbiota regulation of inflammatory bowel
disease (IBD) will provide great insights into the pathogenesis of IBD as well as potential therapeutics for IBD patients.
Keywords: IBD, intestines, microbiota, probiotics, T cells.
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