Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Dysregulation

Author(s): Jane Pei-Chen Chang , Hsien-Yuan Lane , Guochuan E. Tsai .

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 20 , Issue 32 , 2014

Abstract:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a long recognized and common childhood disorder. ADHD adolescents tend to encounter more difficulties in school and peer relationships, whereas ADHD adults have more occupational and interpersonal difficulties. However, with the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, 10-20 % of the patients still remain poor responders to treatment. Among hypotheses for ADHD, dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors has recently been suggested by accumulating genetic and animal studies. This article systemically reviews evidence supporting NMDA dysfunction as a potential ADHD pathogenesis from perspectives of neurodevelopment, attentional circuitry, and impulse inhibition. The review also addresses the development of novel treatments for ADHD via modulation of glutamatergic system, particularly the NMDA/glycine site. These so-called NMDA enhancers may provide a new treatment option for patients with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, NMDA, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, glycine, glutamate, treatment.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 32
Year: 2014
Page: [5180 - 5185]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1381612819666140110115227
Price: $58

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