Autologous Fat Transfer and Cell-Based Strategies for Soft Tissue Reconstruction
Graham G. Walmsley,
Kevin J. Paik,
Victor W. Wong,
Michael T. Longaker,
Derrick C. Wan.
Soft tissue deficits resulting from congenital deformities, aging, trauma, or post-surgical tissue loss are debilitating
problems that can be challenging to reconstruct. However, the introduction of autologous fat transfer has revolutionized
the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation. Its abundance, ease of harvest, and immunocompatibility
have made autologous fat an ideal candidate to correct contour deformities throughout the body. Nevertheless, there has
been substantial inconsistency in reported outcomes due to variable rates of resorption. More recently, progress has been
made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern adipogenesis and adipocyte survival. Furthermore, investigations
continue on the large pool of resident adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) within fat, which may serve as a potential
resource for tissue engineering. This review provides an overview on our current understanding of autologous fat
grafting, adipose biology, adipose tissue engineering, and the potential role ASCs may play in modifying the local tissue
environment to enhance fat transfer outcomes.
Keywords: ASCs, cell-assisted lipotransfer, fat grafting, regenerative medicine, soft tissue engineering, stem cells.
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