Flow Quantification: 1D to 4D
Pp. 84-106 (23)
Christopher J. Francois
Flow quantification with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an established
method for assessing patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases, particularly
valvular heart disease and congenital heart disease. This chapter reviews basic MR
physics and clinical applications for flow quantification, from one-directional flowsensitive
MR to time-resolved, three-directional flow-sensitive MR.
MR Flow, phase contrast, flow quantification, 4D flow MR,
congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease.
Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI, 53792, USA