Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Glutamate Signaling in Ischemic Stroke
Naijian Chao and Sheng-Tian Li
Pages 2043-2064 (22)
Stroke is a leading cause of human mortality and disability where most cases of stroke are ischemic. The central
nervous system (CNS) is extremely vulnerable to ischemic stroke particularly due to its unique ability: synaptic
transmission. Not only does elaborate synaptic transmission consume extravagant energy that constrains neuronal viability
under ischemic conditions, but glutamate, the most predominant neurotransmitter in the CNS, also triggers several catastrophic
signaling cascades at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites when excessively released. These signaling cascades
accelerate neuronal death and exacerbate cerebral injuries during ischemic stroke. In this review, we discuss the complete
picture of synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamate signaling in ischemic stroke. We hope to provide substantial insights into
potential therapies by reviewing recent discoveries that have advanced our understanding of the complex glutamate signaling
mechanisms in ischemic stroke.
Astrocyte, excitotoxicity, extrasynaptic, glutamate, ischemic stroke, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor,
Bio-X Institutes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai, 200240, P.R. China.