Nucleic acid drugs are promising new therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases including genetic diseases,
viral diseases, and cancer. However, their poor intracellular bioavailability and rapid degradation hinder their development
as drugs. Therefore, the main challenge is to develop an efficient delivery system. Calcium phosphate has been
widely used to transfect cultured cells for 40 years, due to its safety, simply of production and noticeable efficacy of transfection.
Unfortunately, calcium phosphate particles show poor colloidal stability because of uncontrolled growth, which
impedes their practical use. Recently, investigators have designed a variety of biodegradable calcium phosphate nanocarriers
and achieved efficient gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. In this review, we focus on the current
research activity in the development of calcium phosphate nanoparticlss for gene delivery. Calcium phosphate
nanoparticles are mainly classified into lipid coated and polymer coated ones for discussion. In addition, cellular uptake
and intracellular trafficking of calcium phosphate nanoparticles are also mentioned.
Keywords: Biodegradable, Calcium phosphate, Cellular uptake, Endosome escape, Gene delivery, Nanoparticles.
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