Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Zeno Foldes-Papp
Visiting Professor of Medical Biochemistry
HELIOS Clinical Center of Emergency Medicine
Department for Internal Medicine
Alte-Koelner-Strasse 9
D-51688 Koeln-Wipperfuerth
Germany

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Ultrasound and Microbubble Guided Drug Delivery: Mechanistic Understanding and Clinical Implications

Author(s): Tzu-Yin Wang, Katheryne E. Wilson, Steven Machtaler and Jurgen K. Willmann

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Room H1307, Stanford, CA 94305-5621, USA.

Keywords: Contrast agents, Drug delivery, Microbubbles, Sonoporation, Therapy, Ultrasound.

Abstract:

Ultrasound mediated drug delivery using microbubbles is a safe and noninvasive approach for spatially localized drug administration. This approach can create temporary and reversible openings on cellular membranes and vessel walls (a process called "sonoporation"), allowing for enhanced transport of therapeutic agents across these natural barriers. It is generally believed that the sonoporation process is highly associated with the energetic cavitation activities (volumetric expansion, contraction, fragmentation, and collapse) of the microbubble. However, a thorough understanding of the process was unavailable until recently. Important progress on the mechanistic understanding of sonoporation and the corresponding physiological responses in vitro and in vivo has been made. Specifically, recent research shed light on the cavitation process of microbubbles and fluid motion during insonation of ultrasound, on the spatio-temporal interactions between microbubbles and cells or vessel walls, as well as on the temporal course of the subsequent biological effects. These findings have significant clinical implications on the development of optimal treatment strategies for effective drug delivery. In this article, current progress in the mechanistic understanding of ultrasound and microbubble mediated drug delivery and its implications for clinical translation is discussed.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 8
Page: [743 - 752]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1389201014666131226114611