Clinical Immunotherapy of B-Cell Malignancy Using CD19-Targeted CAR T-Cells
Affiliation: CAR Mechanics Group, King's College London, King's Health Partners Integrated Cancer Centre, Department of Research Oncology, Guy's Hospital Campus, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK.
Keywords: Adoptive immunotherapy, CD19, chimeric antigen receptor, gene therapy, leukaemia, lymphoma.
The CD19 molecule is ubiquitously expressed throughout all stages of B-cell differentiation, but is not found
on haemopoietic stem cells. Since most B-cell leukaemias and lymphomas retain CD19 expression, it represents an excellent
target for immunotherapy of these malignant disorders. Over the past 10 years, compelling pre-clinical evidence has
accrued to indicate that expression of a CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in peripheral blood T-cells exerts
therapeutic efficacy in diverse models of B-cell malignancy. Building on this, clinical studies are ongoing in several centres
in which autologous CD19-specific CAR T-cells are undergoing evaluation in patients with acute and chronic B-cell
leukaemia and refractory lymphoma. Early data have generated considerable excitement, providing grounds to speculate
that CAR-based immunotherapy will radically alter existing management paradigms in B-cell malignancy. The focus of
this mini-review is to evaluate these emerging clinical data and to speculate on clinical prospects for this new therapeutic
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