Prevalence of Oral and Systemic Manifestations in Pediatric HIV Cohorts with and without Drug Therapy
Renju Jose, Sharath Chandra, Jaishankar H. Puttabuddi, Sajith Vellappally, Abul-Aziz A. Al Khuraif, Hassan S. Halawany, Nimmi B. Abraham, Vimal Jacob and Mohamed Hashim
Pages 498-505 (8)
The prevalence of orofacial and systemic manifestations and their association with drug therapy in pediatric
HIV patients is scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of oro-facial and systemic
manifestations in HIV sero-positive children with and without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The study
population consisted of 100 pediatric HIV patients (n=47 on HAART and n=53 not on HAART). The majority of the
children (n=56) had at least one or more oro-facial manifestation associated with HIV. Oral candidiasis was the most
common oral finding present in the HAART (14/33) and non-HAART groups (19/33). Recurrent aphthous ulcers was the
only significant oral finding, present more in the HAART group. The percentage of children with upper respiratory tract
infection was also more in the HAART group. The other lesions which were found to be significant were seborrheic
dermatitis, pulmonary tuberculosis and otitis media. There was no significant difference in the participants’ oral findings
based on CD4 counts in the HAART and non- HAART groups. The prevalence of oral and systemic manifestations is a
persistent feature associated with pediatric HIV, though of moderate intensity in those using HAART and may vary
according to individual immune status.
Candidiasis, children, HAART, HIV/AIDS, immunosuppression, oral lesions.
Dental Caries Research Chair, P.O. Box 60169, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia.