The Novel Multi-Target Iron Chelator, M30 Modulates HIF-1α-Related Glycolytic Genes and Insulin Signaling Pathway in the Frontal Cortex of APP/PS1 Alzheimer’s Disease Mice

Author(s): Danit Mechlovich, Tamar Amit, Orit Bar-Am, Silvia Mandel, Moussa B.H Youdim, Orly Weinreb.

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Volume 11 , Issue 2 , 2014

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Abstract:

Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulation of brain insulin/insulin receptor (InsR) and insulin signaling cascade are associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our group has designed and synthesized a series of multi-target iron chelating, brain permeable compounds for AD. One leading multi-target compound, M30 possesses the neuroprotective N-propargyl moiety of the anti-Parkinsonian, monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, rasagiline (Azilect®) and the antioxidant-iron chelating moiety of an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative of the iron chelator, VK28. Positive outcomes for the behavioral/cognitive and neuroprotective effects of M30 were recently obtained in preclinical experimental studies, regarding pathological aspects relevant to ageing and AD. We report that chronic treatment with M30 (1 and 5 mg/kg p.o; three times a week for 9 months) significantly elevated cortical insulin and InsR transcript and protein expression, respectively and increased the phosphorylated form of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the frontal cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double transgenic mice. In addition, M30 treatment upregulated the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and expression of its target genes involved in glycolysis including, aldolase A, enolase-1 and glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), in the frontal cortex of APP/PS1 mice. Treatment with M30 also lead to an increase in the hepatic protein expression levels of InsR and Glut-1 and lowered the increase in blood glucose levels following glucose tolerance test. The present findings indicate that the multifunctional iron chelating drug, M30 regulates major brain glucose metabolism parameters and thus, might be beneficial for AD, in which impaired neuronal insulin signaling and Glut expression have been implicated.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, hypoxia-inducible factor -1α, iron chelation, insulin signaling pathway, neuroprotection.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 11
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2014
Page: [119 - 127]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1567205010666131212112529
Price: $58

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