In the course of catalytic and solvent-free reactions, urea and ortho-phenylene diamine enter into a reaction and
produce a highly important heterocyclic compound. Apart from the importance of the synthesized heterocyclic compound,
it should be known which one of the reactants (urea or ortho-phenylene diamine) attacks as the nucleophile, and which
one of them reacts as the electrophile. To clear off this subject considering urea molecule attacking the carbon centre of
the benzene as the nucleophile, it will be then possible to develop several useful reactions based on the substitution process.
Moreover, the results of such study could substitute the expensive isotopic labelling studies by employing the theoretical
work. These calculations were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level.
Keywords: Nucleophilic substitution, reaction pathways, DFT, urea, ortho-phenylene diamine, solvent free reaction.
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